Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

7 Questions to Ask Before Booking A DJ For Your Wedding

Scouting for an amazing disc jockey (DJ) for your wedding is not a stroll in the park since there are many things to put into consideration. However, before booking that DJ, he must be able to provide appropriate answers to the following questions in order to prove his competence.

1. Are you a full-time DJ?

It is important for you to know that the DJ you want to hire is not just a one-dimensional part timer who may not owe enough time to the job. He must be involved on a full-time basis with quality experience that cuts across various events. He must be a true performer that can handle tough audiences without stress and satisfy them.

2. How do you treat song requests?

You should engage a DJ that understands how to strike a balance between couple's song requests and those of the guests so that both parties are adequately satisfied.

3. How do you customize the music experience for each couple?

He should be able to provide a soundtrack for your wedding which is dependent on your taste, style and vision for the day. He should be able to willingly accept your must-play and do-not-play lists because you are supposed to be in control of the music that will be played on that day.

4. Can I hear some samples of mixing and blending of different tracks?

He should be able to blend between songs harmoniously to the point that you may not even be aware of it. There should not be artless silence between songs as this will make your party to be boring.

5. What sound equipment do you work with? Do you have back-up?

The equipment that a DJ makes use of is as important as musical instruments. His turntable, microphone, mixer, computer, etc., must be up-to-date in order to reel out the best mix for your party. It is also important to have back-up equipment to guard against unforeseen circumstances.

6. How do you get the crowd pumped?

DJs have a lot of baits to encourage guests to take on the dance floor. You can request for a video of past performances in order to gauge the skills of the DJ you want to hire in entertaining guests.

7. Why should I choose you as my wedding DJ?

Providing a satisfactory answer to this question will go a long way to prove that you are about to hire a competent DJ. He should be able to tell you what makes him unique in the industry and this will assist you in making a vital decision that will make your wedding successful.

How to Get a 700 Plus Credit Score With One Small Key Ingredient

Everyone wants a great credit score, but sometimes you wonder if it is possible. If you are wondering how to get a 700 plus credit score, then you are in luck. This article will help you understand your credit better, and show you how to get awesome credit!

First, it’s important to understand what makes up your credit score. There are three major credit bureaus that potential creditors will use to get info about you. These are Equifax, Experian, and Transunion. These credit bureaus collect info about you from those you have borrowed money from. The more times you pay your creditors on time, the better your score. They also measure the amount of debt that you have and how much of that is revolving debt (think credit cards). Too much revolving debt will lower your overall score.

Generally speaking a credit score above 700 is considered to be very good. This will entitle you to the best rates and the most respect. But, the holy grail of good great, a credit score above 700, is made all the more important in the credit driven society that we live in. A good credit score can mean that you can afford a bigger house or that great car you’ve wanted. It also gives you options and freedom.

Many people want to know how to get a 700 plus credit score. It is not as difficult as you might imagine. Even if you have made credit mistakes in the past, you can learn how to get it where you want. Start by getting on a reasonable budget. This allows to the freedom to allocate your funds properly so that you know that the money is there to pay your bills. And want to know the biggest secret to get your credit score above 700? Pay those bills on time! Anti-climatic, I know, but that is seriously it.

Another tip on how to get a 700 plus credit score is to keep your balances on your credit cards well under the limit. It is a good idea to owe less than half of your limit on your cards, and pay them regularly. When you are maxed out or even close on your cards, this signals to creditors that you are having financial trouble.

Finally, try not to apply for new credit if you don’t need it. Those store credit cards that promise to give you ten or fifteen percent off of your purchases may be tempting, but in the long run they can cost you precious points on your score. Limiting new credit inquiries is a key element in how to get a 700 plus credit score.

If you are looking for ways to skyrocket your credit, keep these tips in mind. If you keep to your budget, make your payments on time, and watch your balances, you can learn how to get a 700 plus credit score in no time.

7 Tips For Buying Swarovski Bridal Jewelry

Swarovski bridal jewelry has been a popular choice for a lot of women today. A reason for this is that Swarovski crystals just looks cool and fantastic because of its one of a kind glimmer and shine. So it’s no wonder that so many people just find themselves highly likely to buy this type of crystals. If it’s your first time to purchase Swarovski then you might just find it much better to do so using these useful tips:

1. Be familiar with different Swarovski crystals and know which one you would like to buy. It can be very unnerving to find that there are so many options out in the market. You can begin by searching up online and looking for the different types and make of Swarovski crystals that you can purchase.

2. Look for a reliable seller. The last thing you want is to find a person who will not be able to give you the right and authentic crystals you so want to purchase. Research about how authentic the seller is and you should also take time to look at the person’s comments and reviews page. Check what other people has to say about this person as they have made transactions with him or her. The more comments you find, then all the more better.

3. Check out the payment options. If you are buying your crystals online then it would be best to do a quick look at the site’s overall look and feel. This is a great way for you to understand just how much reliable the site is when it comes to making transactions. Don’t forget to check the security measures being used onsite or else you might end up making an unnecessary risk.

4. Have a budget before looking at the market or better yet, start with canvassing for prices first. Although Swarovski crystals are generally much less expensive than other precious gems, it is still a precious stone and as such would be more pricey than what you would have expected. So as soon as you get to finish making your canvass it would be easier for you to budget your money so that you can buy the perfect Swarovski crystals that you want.

5. Pair up your crystals with the occasion. This is a great way for you to be able to trim down your choices. Think of the actual reason why you decided to buy Swarovski in the first place and from there, you can think about better choices much easier.

6. Look for classic colors and designs. On way you can enjoy your Swarovski crystals much better is if you get to choose designs that are almost all-around. This simply means that it can be used for different occasions. It would be best to have a design that you can wear even after the wedding is over so that you can really stretch its usability.

7. Get the opinion of a designer. If you are having your gown made through couture, it would be wise to consult them about these crystals too.